The growing importance of CAD is reflected in the controversy they sometimes generate. In 1998, the Slovenian Prime Minister faced impeachment proceedings with Israel for a DCA. Footnote 2 An agreement between Belarus and Iran in 2007 provoked public condemnation from the United States and the European Union. Footnote 3 A 1996 DCA between Greece and Armenia led a Turkish government spokesman to accuse Greece of "threatening peace and stability in the region" and of trying to "surround Turkey". Footnote 4 And a 1995 agreement between Australia and Indonesia proved so controversial that it was not denounced until four years later. Footnote 5 When developing a comprehensive theory of DCA training synthetic theory of cooperation with network analysis knowledge. Footnote 7 Countries are working together to achieve common profits. Footnote 8 Macroeconomic changes in the global security environment - including the collapse of the Soviet Union, the decline of intergovernmental warfare and the growth of non-traditional security threats - have increased the common benefits of defence cooperation, increasing the demand for AMC. These system-wide trends lead to specific dyadic influences. Faced with an increasingly complex security environment, states are using DIAC to (1) modernize their military and improve their defence capabilities, (2) improve coordinated responses to common security threats, and (3) align with like-minded communities of collaborators. At the dyadic level, the demand for DCAs depends on the ability of potential partners to help each other achieve these goals. These network flows complement the exogenous influences discussed above. Since exogenous influences first stimulate the demand for defence cooperation, they are historically ahead of networks.
At what point in the history of DCAs do network flows become important? In the days of the Cold War, defence cooperation largely reflected geopolitical conflicts between prosperous and economically integrated major powers, as these governments benefited the most from defence cooperation and also had the resources to prolong risky cooperative openings. Footnote 110 When the Cold War subsided, the interests of the major powers shifted from intergovernmental concerns to non-traditional security threats. Footnote 111 Other governments that were no longer involved in violent regional blocs quickly recognized their vulnerability to the same threats. The growing potential for common benefits has crystallized a broad interest in decentralized defence cooperation systems. Footnote 112 Unlike the emergence of DCA in the 1980s, this interest in defence cooperation was not limited to the major powers and their immediate partners, but was insinuated into the middle and regional players. These governments, to which the major powers are unable to absorb the risks and cover the costs of governance, have demanded that their potential partners maintain guarantees of reliability. The existing DCAs network, which was forged between large power plants and their satellites, provided an important resource and provided important information on the preferences of potential partners. Overall, the "First Mover" when DCA was created should therefore be prosperous, powerful and economically integrated governments. As the Cold War fades and other governments - which recognize the need for security cooperation but do not have the resources of the major powers - begin to take an interest in decentralized defence cooperation, networks should gain strength.